2. Routes of Drug Administration

The oral route presents major benefits such as the ease of use (like tablets & capsules). These forms are usually cost efficient and can be used to formulate modified release systems which can improve bioavailability. Improving drug performance and safety is key for oral route.
Injectable route
The injectable route is used for a quick administration (adapted to emergencies), a controlled dosage, the absence of intestinal and hepatic first pass effect and continuous medication (infusion). This route of administration is growing with the developments of biological drugs posing new challenges.
Topical route
The topical route is easy to use for patients. It can also be used for a local effect and has no first pass effect, which can be of great benefit in reducing side effects of oral dosage forms. Challenges of this route of administration are linked to the texture of the drug to improve patient compliance as well as efficacy.

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