Pharmacology

4. Drug acting on autonomic ganglia

Ganglionic Blockers Ganglionic blocking agents can be classified on the basis of their chemical structure or mechanism of action into three groups Depolarizing drugs, such as nicotineCompetitive drugs, such as trimethaphan and tetraethylammoniumNoncompetitive agents, such as hexamethonium (C6) and mecamylamine, a secondary amine. Depolarizing drugs, such as nicotine, which produce initial stimulation and varying degrees of subsequent block through a …

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2. Anti cholinesterase

Anticholinesterases are a class of drugs that decrease breakdown of acetylcholine (a chemical messenger in the brain) and can be used in conditions whereby there is an apparent lack of this messenger transmission such as in Alzheimer’s disease.. By blocking this enzyme the breakdown of acetylcholine, released by the remaining healthy brain cells, is slowed …

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9. Cardiovascular Drugs – i

Drug Interactions Many commonly used drugs interact with digitalis compounds. The Class IA antiarrhythmic, quinidine, competes with digoxin for binding sites and depresses renal clearance of digoxin. Similar interactions occur with calcium-channel blockers and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.   Diuretics can indirectly interact with digoxin because of their potential for decreasing plasma potassium levels (i.e., producing hypokalemia).  …

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EXTRA CLASS – Eye

Blood supply and drainage of the eyeThe eye is supplied by the ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, when it has travelled passed the cavernous sinus.Lacrimal arteryThis artery arises from the ophthalmic artery near the optic canal. It runs with the lacrimal nerve to supply the lacrimal gland. The …

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